Friday, July 3, 2015

ChongQiang or ZhongXiang city


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
County-level City
Zhongxiang is located in Hubei
Location in Hubei
Coordinates: 31°10′N 112°35′ECoordinates: 31°10′N 112°35′E
Country People's Republic of China
Province Hubei
Prefecture-level city Jingmen
Township-level divisions 1 subdistrict
15 towns
1 township
Seat Yingzhong Subdistrict (郢中街道)
 • Total 4,488 km2 (1,733 sq mi)
Elevation 66 m (217 ft)
 • Total 1,032,568
 • Density 230/km2 (600/sq mi)
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
Postal code 431900
Area code(s) 0724
Zhongxiang (simplified Chinese: 钟祥; traditional Chinese: 鐘祥; pinyin: Zhōngxiáng) is a county-level city of Jingmen, central Hubei province, People's Republic of China. The name Zhongxiang means "Blessed with propitious omen", and was given to the city by Emperor Jiajing in the Ming Dynasty. Zhongxiang is a well-known historical and cultural city in China.



Zhongxiang is one of the cradles of Chu culture. It was the alternate capital of the Chu state in the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States period.
Because the Ming Dynasty's Jiajing Emperor (known also under the temple name Shizong; reigned 1521–1567) was born and had lived in the city before he succeeded to the throne, Zhongxiang, the place where the Chengtian Prefecture (fu) Government Office was located, became one of the three major prefectures directly under the central government. Once on the throne, the Jiajing Emperor controversially had his dead father Zhu Youyuan (1476–1519) retroactively styled as the Gongruixian Emperor; his mother became the Zhangsheng empress dowager. They were buried at a sumptuous mausoleum, knowns as the Xianling Tomb, a few kilometers northeast of Zhongxiang.[1]
During Jiajing's reign, a large estate owned by the emperor occupied a significant part of Chengtian Prefecture, and was run by the same eunuch who was in charge of the protection of the mausoleum.[2]
The mausoleum complex is now a tourist site; it was included on the List of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 2000, as one of the Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties.[3]



After years of construction, an industrial structure has been initially formed by the development of machinery, building materials, chemicals, light industry, textile and food industry. Among more than 600 industrial products, 20 of them entered international markets, 45 species are at national leading level and 130 species are at the leading level in Hubei province.
As of 2009, 265 main industrial enterprises contribute 19.563 billion yuan to the city's industrial output value with a sales value of 18.9747 billion yuan, export delivery value of 307.16 million yuan. [4]


ZhongXiang has diversified terrain and appropriate subtropical monsoon climate. The total land area is 4760 square kilometer, with 1300 square kilometer cultivated land 300 square kilometer uncultivated land. Area for forest, waters and pasture is 1300 square kilometer, 50 square kilometer and 1200 square kilometer respectively. The total amount of freshwater resources is 5104.2 billion cubic meters.
With diversified terrain, there are different kinds of agricultural products. Main agricultural products include grains, cotton, oil, pigs, poultry, fruits, vegetables, and edible fungus. Main crops includes rice, wheat, corn, soybean silkworm peas, and cotton, rapeseed, peanut, sesame, vegetables, citrus fruit, pears, grape, red jujube, peaches, tea, etc.
In 2009, the municipal agricultural output value reached 8.2 billion yuan. Total agricultural production includes 816500 tons total grain output, 144100 tons cotton output, 120700 tons oil production; 92000 tons animal production; 110000 tons output of aquatic products; 193300 tons fruit production. [5]


Zhongxiang, with a total land area of 4,488 square kilometres (1,733 sq mi), is situated in the central part of Hubei. It lies at the north of Jianghan Plain, and the middle reaches of the Han River, with latitude ranging from 30° 42' to 31° 36' N and longitude 112° 07' to 113° 00' E, and a maximum north-south extent of 100.6 km (62.5 mi) and east-west width of 83.5 km (51.9 mi). The urban area is at 66 m (217 ft) above sea level.[6] After the building of the Three Gorges Dam a number of people from the Gaoyang area moved to the area around Zhongxiang. It borders Suizhou to the northeast, Jingshan County to the east, Tianmen to the south, the two districts (urban area) of Jingmen to the west, and Yicheng to the northwest.

Wednesday, July 1, 2015

Tallahassee, Florida


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"Tallahassee" redirects here. For other uses, see Tallahassee (disambiguation).
Tallahassee, Florida
State capital
City of Tallahassee
Top, Left to Right: Tallahassee Skyline, Florida Capitol Buildings, Unconquered statue of Osceola and Renegade at FSU, FAMU's Marching 100, Old St. Augustine Canopy Road, and Cascades Park
Top, Left to Right: Tallahassee Skyline, Florida Capitol Buildings, Unconquered statue of Osceola and Renegade at FSU, FAMU's Marching 100, Old St. Augustine Canopy Road, and Cascades Park
Flag of Tallahassee, Florida
Official seal of Tallahassee, Florida
Nickname(s): "Tally"
Motto: "Florida's Capital City"
Location in Leon County and the state of Florida
Location in Leon County and the state of Florida
Tallahassee, Florida is located in USA
Tallahassee, Florida
Tallahassee, Florida
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 30°27′18″N 84°15′12″WCoordinates: 30°27′18″N 84°15′12″W
Country United States
State Florida
County Leon
Established 1824
 • Type Commission–Manager
 • Mayor Andrew Gillum (D)
 • Total 103.5 sq mi (268 km2)
 • Land 100.3 sq mi (260 km2)
 • Water 3.2 sq mi (8 km2)
Elevation[2] 203 ft (62 m)
Population (2010)[3][4]
 • Total 181,376
 • Estimate (2014) 188,107
 • Rank 126th, U.S.
 • Density 1,809.3/sq mi (698.6/km2)
 • Urban 240,223 (153rd)
 • Metro 375,751 (140th)
Time zone Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
ZIP code(s) 32300–32399
Area code(s) 850
FIPS code 12-70600[3]
GNIS feature ID 0308416[2]
Tallahassee /ˌtæləˈhæsi/ is the capital of the U.S. state of Florida. It is the county seat and only incorporated municipality in Leon County, and is the 126th largest city in the United States. Tallahassee became the capital of Florida, then the Florida Territory, in 1824. In 2010, the population recorded by the U.S. Census Bureau was 181,376,[5] and the Tallahassee metropolitan area is 375,751 as of 2014.
Tallahassee is home to Florida State University, ranked the nation's forty-third best public university by U.S. News & World Report.[6] It is also home to the Florida A&M University, the country's largest historically black university by total enrollment.[7] Tallahassee Community College is a large community college which serves mainly as a feeder school to both Florida State University and Florida A&M University. Tallahassee qualifies as significant college town with a student population exceeding 70,000.
Tallahassee is a center for trade and agriculture in the Big Bend (Florida) region and Southwest Georgia and is served by Tallahassee International Airport and Interstate 10. As a capital city, Tallahassee is home to the Florida State Capitol, Supreme Court of Florida, Florida Governor's Mansion, and nearly 30 state agency headquarters. The city is also known for its large number of law firms, lobbying organizations, trade associations and professional associations, including the Florida Bar and the Florida Chamber of Commerce.[8] It is also a recognized regional center for scientific research, and home to the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory.


Mission San Luis de Apalachee as it may have appeared in the 17th century
Early Tallahassee; Showing points of interest from over a century ago
During the 17th century several Spanish missions were established in the territory of the Apalachee to procure food and labor for the colony at St. Augustine. The largest, Mission San Luis de Apalachee, has been partially reconstructed by the state of Florida. The name "Tallahassee" is a Muskogean Indian word often translated as "old fields" or "old town",[9] and it likely stems from the Creek (later called Seminole) Indians who migrated from Georgia and Alabama to this region in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. They found large areas of cleared land previously occupied by the Apalachee tribe. Earlier, the Mississippian Indians built mounds near Lake Jackson around AD 1200, which survive today in the Lake Jackson Archaeological State Park.[10]
The expedition of Pánfilo de Narváez encountered the Apalachees, although it did not reach the site of Tallahassee. Hernando de Soto and his expedition occupied the Apalachee town of Anhaica in what is now Tallahassee in the winter of 1538–1539.
Battle of Natural Bridge; First reenactment of the Battle of Natural Bridge
Based on archaeological excavations this site is now known to be located about 0.5 miles (800 m) east of the present Florida State Capitol. The DeSoto encampment is believed to be the first place Christmas was celebrated in the continental United States.
During the First Seminole War, General Andrew Jackson fought two separate skirmishes in and around Tallahassee. The first battle took place on November 12, 1817. Chief Neamathla, of the village of Fowltown, just west of present day Tallahassee had refused Jackson's orders to relocate. Jackson responded by entering the village, burning it to the ground, and driving off its occupants. The Indians later retaliated, by killing 50 soldiers and civilians. Jackson reentered Florida in March 1818. According to Jackson's adjutant, Colonel Robert Butler, they "advanced on the Indian village called Tallahasse (sic) [where] two of the enemy were made prisoner."[11]

State capital

Historic Cascades Park; Hand-colored photograph of the Cascades
Tallahassee became the capital of Florida during the second legislative session. It was chosen as it was roughly equidistant from St. Augustine and Pensacola, which had been the capitals of the Spanish colonies of East Florida and West Florida. The first session of Florida's Legislative Council—as a territory of the United States—met on July 22, 1822 at Pensacola and members from St. Augustine traveled fifty-nine days by water to attend. The second session was in St. Augustine and required western delegates to travel perilously around the peninsula on a twenty-eight day trek. During this session, it was decided that future meetings should be held at a half-way point. Two appointed commissioners selected Tallahassee, at that point an abandoned Apalachee settlement, as a halfway point. In 1824 the third legislative session met there in a crude log capitol building.[12]
From 1821 through 1845 the rough-hewn frontier capital gradually grew into a town during Florida's territorial period. The Marquis de Lafayette, French hero of the American Revolution, returned for a tour of the United States in 1824. The US Congress voted to give him $200,000 (the same amount he had given the colonies in 1778), US citizenship, and the Lafayette Land Grant, 36 square miles (93 km2) of land that today includes large portions of Tallahassee. In 1845 a Greek revival masonry structure was erected as the Capitol building in time for statehood. Now known as the "old Capitol," it stands in front of the high-rise Capitol building that was built in the 1970s.[13]
Tallahassee was in the heart of Florida's Cotton Belt—Leon County led the state in cotton production—and was the center of the slave trade in Florida.[14] During the American Civil War, Tallahassee was the only Confederate state capital east of the Mississippi not captured by Union forces, and the only one not burned. A small engagement, the Battle of Natural Bridge, was fought south of the city on March 6, 1865, just a month before the war ended.
During the 19th century the institutions that would eventually evolve into what is now Florida State University were established in Tallahassee, firmly cementing its foundations as a university town. These included the Tallahassee Female Academy (founded 1843) and the Florida Institute (founded 1854). In 1851 the Florida legislature decreed two seminaries to be built on either side of the Suwanee River, East Florida Seminary and West Florida Seminary. In 1855 West Florida Seminary was transferred to the Florida Institute building (which had been established as an inducement for the state to place the seminary in Tallahassee). In 1858 the seminary absorbed the Tallahassee Female Academy and became coeducational.[15] Its main building was located near the northwest corner of South Copeland and West Jefferson streets, approximately where FSU's Westcott Building is today.
In 1887 the Normal College for Colored Students, ancestor of today's FAMU, opened its doors. The legislature decided that Tallahassee was the best location In Florida for a college serving negro students. Four years later its name was changed to State Normal and Industrial College for Colored Students.
After the Civil War much of Florida's industry moved to the south and east, a trend that continues today. The end of slavery hindered the cotton and tobacco trade, and the state's major industries shifted to citrus, lumber, naval stores, cattle ranching and tourism. The post-Civil War period was also when many former plantations in the Tallahassee area were purchased by wealthy northerners for use as winter hunting preserves. This included the hunting preserve of Henry L. Beadel, who bequeathed his land for the study of the effects of fire on wildlife habitat. Today the preserve is known as the Tall Timbers Research Station and Land Conservancy, nationally recognized for its research into fire ecology and the use of prescribed burning.


Until World War II, Tallahassee remained a small southern town with virtually the entire population living within 1 mile (2 km) of the Capitol. The main economic drivers were the universities and state government, where politicians met to discuss spending money on grand public improvement projects to accommodate growth in places such as Miami and Tampa Bay, hundreds of miles away from the capital. By the 1960s there was a movement to transfer the capital to Orlando, closer to the growing population centers of the state. That motion was defeated and the 1970s saw a long-term commitment by the state to the capital city with construction of the new capitol complex and preservation of the old Florida State Capitol building.
In 1970, the Census Bureau reported city's population as 74.0% white and 25.4% black.[16]
In 1977 a 22-story high-rise Capitol building designed by architect Edward Durell Stone was completed, which is now the third-tallest state capitol building in the United States. In 1978 the old capitol, directly in front of the new capitol, was scheduled for demolition, but state officials decided to keep the Old Capitol as a museum.[17]
Florida's Old Capitol Building as seen at Night
Tallahassee was the center of world attention for six weeks during the 2000 United States Presidential election recount, which involved numerous rulings by the Florida Secretary of State and the Florida Supreme Court.


[1] According to the United States Census Bureau the city has an area of 98.2 square miles (254.3 km2), of which, 95.7 square miles (247.9 km2) is land and 2.5 square miles (6.5 km2) (2.59%) is water.
Photo of Tallahassee taken from the International Space Station (ISS) on January 22, 2011
Tallahassee's terrain is hilly by Florida standards, being located at the southern end of the Red Hills Region, just above the Cody Scarp. The elevation varies from near sea level to just over 200 feet (61 m), with the state capitol on one of the highest hills in the city. The city includes two large lake basins, Lake Jackson and Lake Lafayette, and borders the northern end of the Apalachicola National Forest.
The flora and fauna are similar to those found in the mid-south and low country regions of South Carolina and Georgia. The palm trees are the more cold-hardy varieties like the state tree, the Sabal Palmetto. Pines, magnolias, hickories, and a variety of oaks are the dominant trees. The Southern Live Oak is perhaps the most emblematic of the city.


Unlike most of Florida, Tallahassee experiences all four seasons. Shown are the autumn leaves along the sidewalks of Monroe Street in Downtown Tallahassee
Snowball fight on the Florida State Capitol Building in Tallahassee on February 13, 1899
Tallahassee has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), with long summers and short, mild winters, as well as drier springs and autumns. Summers here are hotter than in the Florida peninsula and it is one of the few cities in the state to occasionally record temperatures above 100 °F (37.8 °C), averaging 2.4 days annually.[18] The record high of 105 °F (41 °C) was set on June 15, 2011.[19] Summer is characterized by brief intense showers and thunderstorms that form along the afternoon sea breeze from the Gulf of Mexico. The daily mean temperature in July, the hottest month, is 82.0 °F (27.8 °C). Conversely, the city is markedly cooler in the winter, with a January daily average temperature of 51.2 °F (10.7 °C). In addition, as Tallahassee straddles the boundary between USDA Hardiness Zones 8B and 9A,[20] the coldest temperature of the season is typically around 20 °F (−7 °C). During the Great Blizzard of 1899 the city reached −2 °F (−19 °C), the only recorded sub-zero Fahrenheit reading in Florida.
Snow and ice are rare in Tallahassee. Nonetheless, over the last 100 years the city has recorded some accumulating snowfalls; the heaviest was 2.8 inches (7.1 cm) on February 13, 1958. A White Christmas occurred in 1989,[21] and during the March 13–14, 1993 eastern U.S. "superstorm," there were high winds and traces of snow. Historically, the city usually records at least flurries every three to four years, but on average, measurable amounts of snow 1.0 inch (2.5 cm) occur only once every 17 years. The last measurable snowfall took place December 22–23, 1989. The natural snow line (regular yearly snowfalls) ends 200 miles (320 km) to the north at Macon, Georgia, but the city averages 32 nights where the temperature falls below freezing, and, on average, the first freeze occurs on November 20, the last on March 22.[18]
Although several hurricanes have brushed Tallahassee with their outer rain and wind bands, in recent years only Hurricane Kate, in 1985, has struck Tallahassee directly. The Big Bend area of North Florida sees several tornadoes each year during the season, but none have hit Tallahassee in living memory. During extremely heavy rains, some low-lying parts of Tallahassee may flood, notably the Franklin Boulevard area adjacent to the downtown and the Killearn Lakes subdivision (which is not within the city limits proper) on the north side.